Those of us who have studied ancient gravity in detail generally agree the evidence
indicates gravity was much less in the geological past. I even think we can roughly
calculate that ancient gravity was about a third of today’s gravity 300 million years
ago, slowly increasing over hundreds of millions of years to reach its present day
However, one area of debate amongst us has been whether this increase in gravity
has been continuous or intermittent and all that implies for the rest of science.
Carl Strutinski, a German-Romanian geologist, has attempted to answer that question
in a new paper by looking at the Lilliput Effect, reduced gravity and mass extinctions.
I first meet Carl Strutinski at the Erice workshop in 2011 when three of us, Carl
Strutinski, Ramin Mardfar and me (Stephen Hurrell) were presenting the evidence for
ancient reduced gravity to the assembled audience – mainly geologists but with a
sprinkling of other sciences. Strutinski’s paper about reduced gravity appeared in
the papers produced from that workshop – there were three papers about reduced gravity
published in total, one each from Strutinski, Mardfar and Hurrell.
Strutinski has recently written another paper, Wachsende Schwerkraft - Triebfeder
der Evolution? (in German), outlining more evidence that gravity has been slowly
increasing over geological time. The title of the paper translates as, Increasing
gravity - driving force of evolution? Although the main body of the paper is in German
there is an English abstract in the paper.
As an addition to that main paper Strutinski has written another new paper, The Lilliput
Effect – a response of life to increasing gravity? (in English this time). The new
paper is available as a free pdf.
The Lilliput Effect is a pronounced reduction in the size of life - seemingly associated
with various mass extinctions. It is fairly well-known to specialists in the field,
although as Strutinski notes, Wikipedia are unaware of it so perhaps it is not that
well-known amongst non-specialists. Even the specialists are unsure why it happened
and there has been much debate about the Lilliput Effect.
Looking at the Lilliput Effect, Strutinski firstly proposes that life would struggle
to adapt to its new environment during a period of geologically rapid change in gravity,
producing exactly the rapid size reduction and mass extinction events we see in the
geological record. He provides very detailed evidence supporting his proposal. For
instance, there have been a number of hypergravity experiments, where present day
animals are subjected to higher gravities than normal, and the effect of higher gravity
on these animals is very similar to the effect noted in the fossil record during
these extinction events.
The Lilliput Effect – a response of life to increasing gravity?
Looking at a period beginning in the Late Carboniferous and lasting over the entire
Permian, Strutinski proposes that “a highly pronounced multiphase increase of gravity
took place”. It caused several extinctions in close succession, provoking an unprecedented
fast biologic evolution for life.
In an additional paper, Two essays on an annotated edition of Darwin’s ORIGIN OF
SPECIES, Strutinski discusses the role a relatively abrupt increase in gravity would
have on evolution and “living fossils”.
Critics of the papers would probably argue that the evidence is circumstantial and
that is not the same as absolute proof - but that’s just like much of geology. There
are strong indications that gravity change would cause mass extinctions if it was
relatively rapid over brief periods of geological time. Clearly the Lilliput Effect
could be caused by a geologically rapid change in gravity.
Reduced Gravity Earth here Latest News, Comments and Updates here
Strutinski, C. (2012). Contradictory Aspects in the Evolution of Life - Hinting at
Gravitational Acceleration Through Time. In Boschi, Cwojdzinski & Scalera - editors
(2012). The Earth expansion evidence – A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy.
Madfar, R. (2012). Relationship Between Gravity and Bio-Evolution - The Increasing
Gravity Theory. In Boschi, Cwojdzinski & Scalera - editors (2012). The Earth expansion
evidence – A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy.
Hurrell, S.W. (2012). Ancient Life’s Gravity and its Implications for the Expanding
Earth. In Boschi, Cwojdzinski & Scalera - editors (2012). The Earth expansion evidence
– A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy. Abstract & Free pdf
Strutinski, C. (2016). Wachsende Schwerkraft - Triebfeder der Evolution? (Increasing
gravity - driving force of evolution?) German text with English Abstract. Abstract
& Free pdf
Strutinski, C. (2016). The Lilliput Effect – a response of life to increasing gravity? Abstract
& Free pdf
Strutinski, C. (2016). Two essays on an annotated edition of Darwin’s ORIGIN OF SPECIES,
Or An Expansionist’s alternative to Gould, Dawkins & Co.