Dinosaurs and the Expanding Earth


Welcome to the archived comments page.
  • Submit a Comment
  • Archived Comments (Aug 2002 - July 2003)
  • Archived Comments (Jan 2001 - Aug 2002)
  • Archived Comments (Aug 2000 - Dec 2000)
  • Archived Comments (Dec 1998-July 2000)
  • Archived Comments (to Dec 98)
  • Return to Introduction
  • Search the Site
  • The latest comments are at the top of the page.

    Satellite Imagery & Gravity

    I will look for supporting docs from the wealth of satellite imagery. Surely if this is true there will be irrefutable satellite confirmation.

    Another possibility as to the dinosaurs growing large, like the largest animal living today, the blue whale whose size is supported by its environment, water, is that gravity is a part of the force that on the subatomic level orders our universe.

    Gravity is projected to be a resonance and as such it is within the realm of possibility that such a resonance was occuring that put gravity in abayence. Science fiction but interesting?

    Kate Sisco

    Dino size and meteors

    Two thoughts,

    First, when studying dino tracks in mud, has anyone ever thought the imprints reflect a lighter animal?

    Second, if the earth was hit by a large meteor in the time of the dinos, how big does a projectile need to be to alter the rotation of a planet in orbit?

    Oh, one more thought...isn't the whole universe expanding?

    Debbie Chastain
    Whidbey Island, Washington State

    Pseudo-science ala Graham Hancock?

    As a student of plate tectonics and a student of geology, I find the ideas contained within utterly ludicrous. Are we to believe that plate tectonics only played a minor role? And that all the major tectonic features we see on earth is merely the byproduct of some astrological/planetary balloon? I've read that some of the other posters have likened "this hypothesis" to Copernicus and even Gallileo, but my dear fellow, the difference being that Copernicus and Gallileo, at least had it right. If you want to convince me, at least show us some credible evidence.

    Nathan Sali
    South Africa


    I don't have a Degree, but I can read the signs on the Ocean Floor- via Satellite Maps.

    I believe water weight should be considered. Remember "Shallow Seas?" (also E=MC sq.)

    First- Help me re-connect N.Z. to the Andes (N. Island to a Western bay) At the same TIME, re-connect Japan and Utah at the Emporer Seamount Chain (NW end of Hawaii)

    As you bring the Continents close, NOTICE how Hawaii -sort of- merges in toward YUCATAN! (home of the infamous "asteroid") Africa/Europe 'could have' backed off then as well. (I -personally- would like to bring Greenland and the whole Canadian Shield back South) The Caribean Island were puked out of that thing. Yeah, it came from within.

    The early Crust cracked like an egg shell, then tipped over when the continents centrifugally went their separate ways.

    Dave Downer
    United States

    A gradual Reduction in the speed of light

    a gradual Reduction in the speed of light of the universe would be the same as an increase in Mass everywhere, an increase in gravity everywhere, an increase in the physical distance between the earth and moon. The change of speed of light in the universe IS the change in the curvature of spacetime of our universe.

    Our universe is Flatening out. "Ice ages" are the rythmic bouncing of spacetime most likely caused by The AGN in the core of our galaxy. And I feel that our AGN will be letting off a little Steam Soon.

    I also think we have very little time left to put our affairs, so to speak, in order.



    E = (M*N)*((C^2)/N)

    With a Reduction Of SOL..C, Mass Increases. The earth Grows.

    Mass is Just an electromagnetic Field. Not particles. Mass's EM field Just Gets bigger.

    David Fuller

    Accelerating Combined Growth and Expansion of the Earth

    I believe this is my 5th or 6th comment. It has been a while, and it is good to go back and review your prior comments.

    My prior comments said that the Earth grew from a radius of approximately 57.3% to it current radius of 1.00 in about 900 million years. I have come to the conclusion that although the size is nearly correct, the time period is too long. Currently I have gotten it down to the last 270 million years. The method I am employing utilizes the Paleomagnetic Pole "overshoot" correction of (1-Sin of the overshoot angle) X Radius of the Earth. For data look at Expanding Earth Chapter 7 page 21 of 39. This is a "net" reprint of part of one of Samuel Waren Carey's books on the expansion of the Earth. Also look at page 38 of 39 and graph both of them. By taking the current radius as 1.00, it is easy to do the math. On page 38 of 39 just measure and make a graph, exponential growth will be obvious. On page 21 you just take the sin of the angle and subtract it from 1, and graph it according to the dates for the time intervals listed. Then create a graph of combined growth and expansion rates for each time period. Combined growth and expansion decelerates and levels out from the Permian to the middle of the Cretaceous, and about 105 Ma ago it commences an accelerating exponential expansion. The increase is from less than two feet per century to just over 30 feet per century in the Earths radius, in just the last 105 million years. It has only taken me about 3 1/2 years to finally figgure out a method to find out how fast the combined growth and expansion is accelerating.

    As for dinosaurs the slow expansion and relatively fast growth from Jurassic thru Cretaceous implies a possible compressive time period that has resulted in an aggressive expansion in say the last 70 million years.

    This work is getting closer to the truth, but I need to get the time period down to arround 220 million years as that is the presumed total age of the ocean floors prior to this last phase of expansion. The Earth has had several expansions as evidenced by the cyclical accumulation of sediments in limited time periods adjacent to continents, and thus increasing the surface area of each continent.

    What might be noted here is that subduction is not necessary in an expanding earth senario, as the surface area is intermittently increasing. It is most assuredly never decreasing. In addition continents only move the minimal distance to accomodate expansion, and maintain a spherical earth thru migration of fluid rock. Another concept is that after an expansion, ocean levels drop almost instantaneously, while continents settle back into the mantle a a very slow rate. this slow settlements allows reefs to grow upwards and forwards during the several million years it takes for continents to settle back into the mantle and become submerged again. During expansions water levels drop and reefs are absent. There is a 15 million year period in the Devonian with no reefs. This was an expansional time period with the ocean levels dropping.

    Now here is the kicker. Each time the Earth expands, the continents move upward and outward radially to the Earth, and they almost immediately require a curvature correction to lay "flat" again on the mantle. During this process, continents stretch and crack from the bottom up. Hot fluids enter these cracks and begin to cool off and solidify. That is how we get things like pink granite intruded into regular granites. Now for the speculation. I suspect that the cooled fluids can be utilized to date expansions by finding the radiometric dates of the intruded material, and the radiometric date of the intruded material. Radiometric expansion dates from various locations should cluster arround a limited number of time periods, and just slightly preceed the radiometric dates from the material that was erroded off the continent to fill in the new gaps between continents. This is how continental surface areas grow. The cycle of new growth from material from outer space is mixed with the old materials that are erroded and re-deposited in the low lying areas that are created next to continents following each expansion. This system worked well until about 220 to 270 million years ago when expansion began to overwhelm the normal accumulation type growth of the planet. Then enormous and deep ocean basin were formed and thin oceanic crust began to dominate the surface area of the Earth. The cycle of forming new continent adjacent the old continent is now active again, and as the continents push down the mantle, and the ocean floor levels rise, reef rings will again form about the continents, and sedimentation will again fill them in creating new continental surface area.

    One last concept. The verification of the mass and surface gravity of the Earth during the time of the Dinosaurs lies not in their leg structure, but in the long cantilevered necks of the Sauropods. You just need to do a constant stress analysis allowing the force of gravity to gradually decrease until the stress (force per unit area) is constant in the muscles above each vertebra, and the compressive stress is the same at the ends of each vertebra. A cantilevered structure is very sensitive to small changes in length and applied load. The force (bending moment)at each vertebra goes up as the square of the distance. By letting the surface gravity vary to obtain constant stress, the surface gravity at the time that a particular dinosaur lived can be obtained. It may be noted that Paul Sereno's Dinosaur from Argentina is of stouter construction than those dug up during the Marsh-Cope bone wars. Each was appropriately constructed for the surface gravity of the time that they lived in.

    Any structural Engineers want to tackle this one? If you do I have an equation that gives density, surface area, volume, mass, and surface gravity for any size radius of the Earth from 0 to 6400 km in 10 km increments.

    Michael W. Clark
    Golden Colorado

    Expansion of the Earth versus growth of the Earth

    I find as usual that many of your readers that submit comments intuitively comprehend one or the other of these concepts, but not both simultaneously.

    Growth is the accumulation of additional mass on the surface of the Earth from contact with space dust, comets, meteorites, meteors etc. Growth is highly variable primarily based upon how dusty a particular area of our galaxy is, how fast we travel thru it, the surface gravity of our planet at that time, and the surface area of our planet. Growth happens on the surface of the Earth, not inside it.

    Expansion is internal to the Earth. It is based primarily on a redistribution of the material inside the Earth. The change is from a random collection of materials collected layer upon layer to a differentiated distribution of materials. The process of redistribution commences at or near the core when the core begins to melt. The lighter and highly compressed materials tend to rise toward the surface leaving the heavier materials behind. This process of redistribution is continuing today, and may have commenced when the Earth was slightly bigger than Mars, sometime between 900 million and 450 million years ago. Like most processes it starts very slowly and gradually accelerates. Expansion then was very gradual in the beginning and growth, though very slow, overwhelmed the rate of expansion as it is doing with Mars. Later as the Earth heats up, expansion begins to dominate over growth. This expansion climaxes at the time when Dinosaurs reached their maximum size, and results in a decreased surface gravity. decreased surface temperature and pressure, life staying near the Equator where it is warmer, living near sea level etc. Later, as Dinosaur maximum size begins to decline, expansion slows, but the increased surface area of the Earth now promotes a more rapid growth rate, which promotes an increase in surface gravity. The evidence for this lies in the corals and bivalves that inhabit reef complexes. They record a daily growth cycle, a periodic or monthly growth cycle, and annual variations in their growth rates. From these critters Scrutton and others have determined the rotation rate of the Earth during various time periods. In the Cambrian the Earth had a faster rate of rotation (18 hrs). This gradually increased to 23.5 hours (growth), decreased to 22 hours (expansion and differentiation), and then slowed again to 24 hours (increased growth rate).

    The period of change from slow down to speed up to slow down again centers over the Dinosaurs. It commenced around 390 million years ago, and was essentially over around 70 million years ago. Its duration of about 220 million years is the same duration as the age of the ocean floors, but is phase shifted by about 70 million years. This means the changes occured deep in the Earth first, and are working their way toward the surface. In short the melting and differentiating process is from the core upward toward the surface.

    One can not know exactly how fast the combined process of growth and expansion occurs, but we can tell comparatively how fast growth is with binary planets or star planet pairs. Comparing the Sun to Jupiter, Earth to Moon, and Pluto to Charon the ratios are 1046 to 1, 81.3 to 1, and 6.39 to 1 respectively. These are both the growth ratios, and the mass ratios of the pairs. This means that the larger partner gains mass far faster than the smaller partner.

    Dinosaurs definately benefited by a limited period of decreased surface gravity on the Earth centered around 165 million years ago.

    Mike Clark
    Golden Colorado

    Earth is pulling away from the Moon

    Planet Earth because of the internal make-up and the relationship with the sun is increasing density by virtue of our core expanding. We are under the misconseption that Earth expanded some 4.5billion years ago to its current size and has remained that way ever since. The fact of the matter is that Earth is expanding and increasing in density daily. The rate of expansion is synonymous with the rate of core expanding coupled with the use of oil , which depletes the lighter element from Earth at a rate synonymous to our consumption. By the way oil is not a by product of dinosaurs it is the direct by product of the interior of our planet. Diamonds are created deep in the mantle but diamonds are formed by compressing coal(a crude oil). We are led to believe that oil is a leftover from dinosaur so that we do not catch on to the fact that oil is coming from the interior of the planet and the faster we consume Oil the faster our planet increases density which will inturn increase speed for planet earth which will then excellerate the rate in which the moon falls behind. The Moon falls behind because its density is not increasing as Earth's is. This presents a problem for the relationship for planet Earth and the Moon. The Moon during the full Moon acts like a bobber in water and Earth as its catch. The phases of the Moon are more directly related to the swinging action of earth moving to and fro as opposed to the illusion that the moon rotates around Earth and it is the swinging action that is directly influenced by the increase of density whcih influences speed. The greater the increase in density the greater increase in speed and the greater the swing between Earth and Moon. At one point the earth will pull away altogether due to the increase in speed causing the moon to loose its gravitational hold on earth due to the moons lack of density. We can slow the process down if we control the amount of oil will consume. We cannot continue to drive Suburbans and sit in traffic the way we do or we all will pay the price. Earth will cease to rotate as a result of losing the Moon leaving Earth like Venus. Venus lost its moon in the exact way Earth will and Earth is expanding just the way Venus expanded. Mars is the next planet to expand but when mars expands it probably means that Earth no longer is expanding and is about to lose its moon. A harsh reality but one that cannot be denied because of the fatal consequences of ignoring the truth. As an object follows the sun in its gravitation field the planet excellerates thereby decreasing distance from the sun as a result. Mercury because it is the oldest planet in the solar system that we can see, is mostly iron at this time and it resides nearest the sun. Some time in the near future of the solar system, Mercury will catch up with the sun and create the ever illusive sun spots as we know them. However iron on the surface of the moon can be melted done to its original component- hydrogen, which thereby feeds the sun. So how old is the sun?

    Michael Delaney
    United States

    Complexity and logic of Expanding Earth

    This is my forth comment. I have been looking back upon my prior comments (some good, others with errors)and those of other readers with a view to what is new, but was again struck by how intuiative many of the comments are, especially the ones where people see the obvious incongruities between changes in the size of the Earth, the changes in the size of animals, the change in surface gravity, the changes in surface temperature, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric density, plant life, changes in orbital distances between planets and the Sun, changes in rotational rates of planets, and I am sure that one can find other changes. It was many of these comments that have led me to spend the last 3 and a half years doing calculations and writing e-mails about the growth and expansion of the Earth. You will notice that I keep these two terms seperate. Growth is the accumulation of mass from beyond the limits of Earths surface, while expansion is due solely to changes in the distribution of mass within the planet. In short the Earth spent more than 4 billion years accumulating mass, and in only the final 220 million years did the Earth melt internaly from the core upward thru the mantle thus allowing the lighter materials, which were under tremendous compression, to rise toward the surface and expand. In short the interior of the Earth changes from a generally homogeneous distribution of mass to an essentially differentiated distribution of mass. It must be remembered that the Earth grew slowly throughout all of this time, but that expansion has nearly tripled the surface area of the Earth, so now growth is also accelerating. Growth is highly variable. Not only is it dependent on surface gravity and the surface area of the Earth, but is mostly dependent on the availability of new material. Go where it is dusty, and grow fast, go where it is cleaner, and grow more slowly. The Earth is growing quite slowly at this time, less than a half a millimeter of new material per year. This is one of the blunders I made earlier. I said 10^19 kg to 10^20 kg. This is wrong, a math error. It is now down to around 5 x 10^14 kg per year with a peak about 70 million years of around 6 x 10^15 kg per year. This upper end gave a deposit of about 4.5 mm to 5.0 mm of dust (compressed as rock) each year(ocean floor sediments). This deposition rate could have given trouble to the remaining Dinosaurs. A 250,000 year to 600,000 year cold wet spell of near constant overcast and rain. This may be an explanation as to why only the largest of the remaining Dinosaurs went extinct, while smaller and more adaptable critters lived thru these tough, cold, rainy misserable low sinlight times.


    The most interesting thing that happened in the period of Upper end life ( 600 Ma to the present ) is not that the Earths rate of rotation slowed down, but that it breifly sped up its rotation rate. Starting with an 18 hour day in the Cambrian, it decreased rotation to 23.5 hour around 390 Ma ago, then sped up to a 22 hour day around 170 Ma, and subsequently has slowed again to a 24 hour day. The evidence for this is preserved in the corals that form ancient and modern reefs. This is the primary evidence that leads me to believe that expansion was being set up for launch more than 170 Ma before it actually happened, perhaps more. This was the time that core melting and redistribution was occuring which would later continue upward thru the mantle. Core melting began the process of redistribution of material within the Earth. This led to a change in the spin rate of the Earth (speeding up), which is opposite of what growth does (slows) Earths rotation.

    The other compelling evidence of expansion is the animals themselves. Prior to expansion the same species roamed all of the continents (pangea). After the expansion species diversified (seperate continents with oceans in between). 240 Ma plus or minus, there is one land mass. Starting about 220 Ma the expansion kicks in, continents seperate, species become larger, surface gravity drops, atmospheric temperature, pressure, density all decline (pteradactyls with large wing spans), and then everything begins changing back, dinosaurs get smaller, birds get smaller, neck length diminish, and bone structure becomes more massive (Paul Sereno's Dinosaurs). In short the Earth begins a growth spurt following expansion, so surface gravity goes back up, as does atmospheric pressure and tenperature.


    I can put this rather breifly. In the last 600 million years animals have evolved to fill lifes nitches as changes in the Earth created those nitches. The order of life from oceans, to shore, to land, to air, to higher altitude, was no accident. It was an exacting response to an increase in the availability of life's nitchs in the sequence that those nitches became available. Increases in mass led generally to increases in surface gravity that in turn led to increases in atmospheric temperature, pressure, density, etc. Life responded.


    The orbit of planets is also no accident.

    Given two planets that orbit about a common center, both will gain mass. The larger will gain mass faster than the smaller, and as a result will spiral inward toward the common center and slow down , while the smaller will spiral away from the common center, and speed up.

    The Moon and the Earth are moving farther apart, because the Earth is gaining mass 81.3 time as fast as the Moon.

    Mike Clark
    Golden Colorado

    Earth is pulling away

    It is not the Moon that is pulling away, it is Earth that is doing all the pulling. Earth is pulling away from the moon because earth is increasing in density, therefore it is also speeding up. Earth is increasing density partly because of our core expanding and because of our over consumption of oil. Oil is what maintains bouyancy for our planet, so that we don't lose our moon and turn out looking like Venus. Venus lost its moon and therefore lacks rotation and boils away at some 700 degrees F. Venus lost its moon for the same reason we will lose ours, due to the consumption of oil. The moon however is not increasing in density, therefore it can not attain speeds that earth can. The net result will be the loss of the moon. Without the moon earth will cease to rotate leaving us in the exact same state is our sister Venus, not a pretty picture. Oil is a by product of the interior of our planet earth and not some left over from dinosaur. Earth will continue to give oil in accordance to or demands and not our needs. It is the story of The Giving Tree but we must not allow our wants to outway our needs. As the sun travels it rotates and this rotation acts like a sling for the nine orbiting planets. The key to how far one planet orbits or slings from another lays in the differences in density. As a planet becomes denser it also begins to fall towards the sun during its orbit. The lighter gas planets our slung way out due to their lighter density. Mercury which is primarly iron and nickel is about to plunge into the sun where the sun will break down the iron back into its original composition (HYDROGEN), which in turn fuels the sun. By the way that is the reason we see sun spots, there really old planets which our completely turned into iron and melting away on the suns surface. So much for the theory of the big bang and our solar system being 4.5 billion years old and where did Newton lose sight of the thermal effect of the sun. Had he incorporated that into his theories he would have found that a planet is subject to change due to increasing heat of the sun altering the internal composition of each of the inner planets, in other words making the planet denser by causing the interior of each planet to reconfigure its elemental arrangement due to increasing heat. The united states was built on the foundation of consuming oil with a total disregard of what the outcome will be. Thats how America became what it is in so quick a time, where else could you find so many highways and freeways. However I am not one of those who sees the emporers clothes and until then I will continue to say it the way I see it. What can I say to make you see things my way. In hopes of not being too late already.

    Michael Delaney
    United States

    Expanding Earth and Universe

    I want to add to the free thinkers ideas. We are not just living on a expanding Earth but in a expanding system. There are many web sites proving the expanding theory but they all miss out on one critical point. Why? If the Moon and the earth are in expanding orbits as they should be if they are gaining mass and gravity (the earth’s orbit is something like 50 meters per year longer). The Moons of other planets are expanding and so are their orbits. So we must presume all the stars and their planets do as well, hence we have a expanding universe (growing) and can do away with the big bang theory. Then we can see where the moon comes from. So what is the distant future of our earth? Will it eventually turn into a Sun for it's planets? Just think about it and don't shoot the idea down without thinking about it.

    Chris Moolman
    South Africa

    Mars is Earth 500 million years ago

    I have being studying the subject of our planet expanding as well but the angle and approach of study differ and I'd like to demonstrate a functional solar system that would incorporate the theory of Expansion. I will delve right in, in hopes of not losing the reader interest. (The theory of expansion as a by product of density versus inclination) The inner planets and the asteroid belt as we now know it did not exist at an early stage of the solar systems development. The solar system in a distant time was comprised of our sun and the outer gas planets with there satellites. You could say that the sun holds the role of Male in the solar system and that Jupiter and the outer gas planets would be the feminine gender. The satellites which orbit Jupiter are the by products (children or eggs if you may) of the Sun and Jupiter but more directly Jupiter. It has been the satellites of Jupiter which have generated the asteroid belt as well as the inner planets. Imagine if you will, the first satellite of Jupiter escapes orbit as a result of gravitational influences of the sun pulling the satellite away from its original Mothering Planet to enter the Zone of the Fathering planet, our inner sphere. The problem the 1st planet would encounter would be the ability to dissipate heat. The distance between Sun and the 1st planet to enter the inner sphere would be decreasing due to the additional speed being induced to the planet from the overwhelming size of the Sun as compared to the mothering planet Jupiter. In turn, the increasing speed of the planet would institute the ever increasing pressure of the internal hydro metallic properties of the planet to a point of EXPLODING!! The net result is our Asteroid Belt, let me explain why it exploded. The Asteroid Belt now paves the way for the following planet to dissipate heat and begin the process of expansion due to the core increasing size. The 2nd planet would be bombarded by the asteroid belt which would create fissures deep into the mantle that will allow for expansion as apposed to explosion. Plate Tectonics plays a very small role in the expansion of our planet. It is the internal pressures that our pushing the continents outward and thereby giving the appearance that the are moving apart. As far as rationalizing the Model of planetary expansion, it is just a matter of time before this theory and a fully functional solar system takes root and moves our species into the future like never before. A critical point to take into consideration when holding platform in my mind would be to institute the concept of our planet Earth ceasing to expand as a result of exhausting the lighter elements of our planets mantle. Expansion of our planet is the root to the interaction between our Moon and Earth. If Earth stops expanding our Moon will be pulled away by the same effects that drew the 1st satellite away from Jupiter but the effects will be devastating. Earth will cease to rotate from lack of the Moons influences on Earths electro magnetic field. We have quickly excepted a poorly made up theory called The Big Bang which has plunged our species into a land of confusion and has obstructed the path of our reality. Your thoughts?

    Michael Delaney
    United States