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Well, it’s the start of another new year, so it’s time to reflect on the events of 2018. Once again, it’s been another busy year for Earth expansion and palaeogravity.


Prof. S. Warren Carey's 1982 video, A Question of Expansion, created a lot of interest when it was published on YouTube the previous year, and the beginning of 2018 began with several people highlighting it. Neal Adams, who has done such fantastic work in promoting Earth expansion (growing Earth) for the last decade or so, introduced Prof. Carey’s video to all his follows. A few months later, Prof. Carey's Expanding Earth video was also translated into German.


As part of the 50 year anniversary of Plate Tectonics, The Geological Society of London created a web site detailing its history. Part of that history is Earth expansion. Interestingly, the reasons given for rejecting the Earth expansion theory in 1958 have now all been solved. Numerous mechanisms have been identified that could easily cause the required expansion, how expansion deforms the continents to generate mountains has been explained in various science papers, and we now know the density of the Earth hasn’t changed appreciably. Is it time for a rethink?


There have been several mechanisms proposed to increase the Earth’s mass. One relatively simple idea is additional mass from cosmic bombardment. I noticed in February that scientists had effectively confirmed the Earth’s mass had increased at the end of the last Ice Age due to cosmic bombardment. Scientists discovered that a gigantic comet had struck the Earth, adding enough mass to account for about 18.5 years of Earth expansion.

In March I came across another new mechanism for the mass increase required for Earth expansion. It's possibly similar in principle to Carey's cosmological cause but there is insufficient detail to fully judge as yet. Interestingly it included intermittent expansion.

Yet another proposal was discussed by Giancarlo Scalera, the Italian geophysicist, who has been studying the concept of mass increase due to aether for many years. His most recent paper in April was an English translation of a paper submitted to the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of SISFA held at University of Bari, Department of Physics.

Aether is an interesting concept. One of the reasons it was discounted in the early 20th century was because it predicted that the mass of the Earth should increase and scientists thought they "knew" Earth’s mass didn’t increase. We know better now.

Aether also predicts gravity, not because the aether is flowing past us (as I used to think) but because aether is accelerating as it enters the Earth. It is this acceleration which produces the effect of gravity: aether is accelerating around us producing the same effect as if we were accelerating though space. It is the direct equivalence principle.


March also saw an interesting talk by a newcomer to Earth expansion, Jan Mestan. It caused David de Hilster to exclaim, "Wow! Expansion tectonics in the younger generation!"

The video starts with an annoying flicker but that soon disappears once the lights are switched off. Jan has added an English translation to his talk. This needs to be switched on by clicking on the subtitles at the bottom of the YouTube video, assuming you don’t speak Czech of course. I agree whole heartedly with most of what Jan says in his talk, but totally disagree with the final part.


In April I discovered another TV programme about Earth Expansion that had been shown on Italian TV, complete with a short section about reduced gravity for dinosaurs. Since this documentary was in Italian I did my best to translate it in a YouTube video.

In April David de Hilster produced an enthusiastic video review of my book, Dinosaurs and the Expanding Earth. The very first video review!

Over the year David produced a number of videos that discussed Earth expansion and palaeogravity. Something that attracted the attention of a lot of people was the discovery that ancient North American rocks were also found in Australia. As David explains, this is a mystery for Plate Tectonics but is predicted by Earth expansion.

David arranged to interview me but due to a number of hiccups that didn't happen until later in the year. There was more news about Earth expansion in June.

Towards the end of the year David reviewed my book reading list about Earth expansion, calling it a "great reading list for books on the subject". David goes through my list giving you some insights and stories about them.

I regularly update this book reading list of course and I also have another list of science publications that regularly gets updated with new publications. Let me know if I’ve missed anything.


In April the Indian geologists’ Zahid Ali Khan and Ram Chandra Tewari published an article discussing Earth expansion. Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone Concept- A Second Opinion, explained how it is believed that Greater India migrated from the southern hemisphere, collided with Gondwanaland, to close an intervening oceanic Tethys. The authors examined various lines of evidence that indicated this was wrong. This of course all indicates that the Earth has expanded.

In May the Polish geologist Jan Koziar told me that his book, Expanding Earth and Space Geodesy, had just been published by the Association of Geologist Alumni of Wrocław University. He also made a pdf copy freely available on his web site.

Jan's new book dealt with a fascinating topic. Most geologists believe that space geodesy proves the constant size of the Earth, but the reality is startlingly different. The scientists who publish space geodesy results simply accept as fact that the Earth is not expanding (since it has been proven by geologists) and modify their data to fit this conviction. The geologists in their turn accept that the Earth is not expanding, because it has been proven by space geodesy. It is a classic example of circular reasoning. I wrote a review about Jan’s new book on my web site. I suspect Jan was pleased with my review since he put a copy on his own web site. Later in the year Jan Koziar published another book presenting a number of proofs of Earth expansion.  

It was great to see that one of the classic books, Nuteeriat, became newly available as a Kindle edition in May. Later in the year it also appeared as a paperback. It's a great read if you've never come across it.

It's always best to keep a look out for old copies of classic Earth expansion books, sometimes you can buy them remarkably cheaply. Prof. S. Warren Carey's second book, Theories of the Earth and Universe, is an excellent read (it was written for the general reader). When I mentioned a used copy was available for £4.95 it was soon snapped up. Surely a bargain since it’s more often in the £40-50 range!


If you have any serious interest in Earth expansion, or producing your own accurate palaeographic globes, you will certainly want to study the palaeographic maps of Dr Hugh G. Owen. The great news in August was that he made them freely available for private study!

My own book continues to be popular and it's often still in the top 100 in Palaeontology. New readers are constantly discovering it and I was pleased to see another new customer review of my book added to the Amazon UK site in August. It's always gratifying to hear when someone enjoys it.

I originally wrote a computer program to produce Expanding Earth Reconstructions in the early 1990s and various incarnations of those reconstructions have appeared in my book, science papers and elsewhere. The program is very old now but it still managers to produce reasonable Expanding Earth reconstructions. I’ve made those Plate & Expansion Tectonic Overlays for Google Earth freely available if you fancy having a play with them.

In August I used the Google Earth Overlays in a short video about the Zodiac Fan Anomaly. Oceanographers from the United States Geological Survey have drawn attention to the anomalous position of the Zodiac Fan: it simply shouldn't exist according to standard Plate Tectonic theory. Prof. S. Warren Carey has explained it is exactly what we would expect with the Expanding Earth theory. More recently Jan Koziar has also provided me with additional details that I'll have to demonstrate in an additional video sometime.


In September I came across the Expanding Earth Theory in Hindi. I find it interesting that there's a lot of non-English discussion about Earth expansion. There is something in the region of a third of a million views on this video alone. I was aware of the German, Polish, Italian, Russian and Czech discussions but I've never come across Hindi before. Can anyone translate this? It would be interesting to know what they are saying about Earth expansion.

The supporters of the rival theory of Plate Tectonics have continued their Editing War on Wikipedia. None of the recent science papers or books detailing the evidence for expansion are allowed to appear on the Expanding Earth page, while articles about Plate Tectonics continue to be highlighted. The latest edits have even removed the graphic of Earth expansion. I find it amusing that none of the recent advances in Earth expansion theory are supposed to have happened. Clearly they hold the view that you can fool most of the people all the time.

If you really want a good Wikipedia type article on Earth expansion you should look at the Natural Philosophers Wikipedia page on Earth expansion. Unlike the other Wikipedia, they have decided to restrict editing of the pages to experts on the subject under discussion. Now there’s a radical idea! Let someone who knows their subject tell us about it.

It's always fascinating to observe how interest in Earth expansion is increasing daily. Perhaps the message about Earth expansion is finally starting to get through, at least on twitter. Check out this tweet for example. In October I collected all the tweets I've noticed on Twitter in just the last year (2018). It makes quite a collection.

Dr James Maxlow's two previous books about Earth expansion were regularly in the top best sellers in geophysics throughout the year. James has been writing his new book, Beyond Plate Tectonics, for the last few years, so it was great news to hear that Aracne editrice published his new book in November. It looks like it is only available directly from the publisher at the moment but bookshops should start to stock it by next year.  

In December I noticed there was an interesting question on Quora about dinosaur bone strength: "Couldn't the "expanding earth" theory be confirmed (or tested) by analysing the structural strength of dinosaur bones?" My answer was basically that Earth expansion has been confirmed by palaeogravity calculations based on the bone strength of ancient life.  

Right at the end of the year I published my latest estimate for ancient gravity during the time of the dinosaurs. This used the fundamental technique of computing weight against mass estimates for one of the sauropod dinosaurs, Giraffatitan. The results indicate a palaeogravity of about 0.54g at 152 Million years ago. David de Hilster soon reviewed my new paper on YouTube as, “The Best Paleogravity Calculations to Date!”.

This has only been a brief review of the year but it you would like to explore what’s been happening in greater detail the Facebook and Twitter feeds can be explored on the Latest News page.

All in all, I think you will agree it's been another interesting year.


I hope you’ve all had a wonderful Xmas and I wish you all the best for the New Year.


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Related Pages

Review 2017: Earth expansion and palaeogravity in 2017
Review 2016: The expanding Earth theory in 2016
Latest News Comments and Updates
Dinosaurs’ gravity: explaining gigantic dinosaurs
Main Evidence for the Expanding Earth theory
A Brief History of the Expanding Earth theory
An index of Interesting Publications




Page first created   31 Dec 18
Page last updated  13 Jan 18
Some Earth expansion history from 1958
Prof. Carey’s video,
A Question of Expansion

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Mechanisms for Mass increase
Expansion Tectonics in the younger generation
TV programs and video reviews
New science papers and books
Palaeographic Maps, book reviews and computer reconstructions
Expanding Earth in Hindi, twitter, James Maxlow’s 2018 book, and palaeogravity calculations